IWBF’s anti-doping section provides you with an overview of IWBF’s anti-doping efforts and provides you with important information related to anti-doping. Please carefully read through the different sections (see navigation on the top) and reach out to IWBF in case you have any questions or concerns.


Please note that the 2023 WADA Prohibited List entered into force on 1 January 2023.


WADA offers a wide range of courses for athletes and athlete support personnel to educate themselves on anti-doping matters. You can find an overview of the courses on the Anti-Doping Education and Learning Platform (ADeL).

WARNING: Regarding the use of Cannabis

IWBF wishes to remind you that even though Cannabis consumption may be legal in your country, the Prohibited List is still applicable and binding for anyone competing in IWBF competitions. Furthermore, please note that Cannabidiol (CBD) products may contain traces of the prohibited substance tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

Consequently, we encourage players to be cautious with the consumption of CBD products as it may give rise to Adverse Analytical Findings (AAF) for THC and, even in trace amounts the use of THC is prohibited during the In-Competition period. Moreover, these substances are often not well-regulated and may contain substances in different amounts than those shown on the label or even other prohibited natural or synthetic cannabinoids, raising the risk of an unexpected AAF.

List of National Anti-Doping Organizations (NADO)

Do you have questions in relation to your national Anti-Doping program? Would you like to obtain information in your mother tongue?

In this case, we suggest that you visit your National Anti-Doping Agency’s (“NADO”) website.

Click here to find a list of all NADOs.

IWBF Anti-Doping Statistics

Total Samples collected in Wheelchair Basketball132326421111455Not published
Adverse Analytical Findings - Total43204N/A
Adverse Analytical Findings - Ratio (%)3.03%0.92%0.48%0.00%0.88%N/A
Total Samples collected with IWBF as Testing Authority282811493678

The values and principles of clean sport are built around the idea that sport should be fair, honest, and free from cheating, including the use of banned substances & methods. For IWBF, the most relevant values and principles of clean sport include:

  • Fair Play: This is the idea that players should compete on a level playing field and that winning should be based on skill, talent, and hard work, rather than cheating.
  • Health and safety: Clean sport emphasizes the importance of protecting the health and safety of players by discouraging the use of prohibited substances and methods that can be harmful to the athlete’s well-being.
  • Respect: Clean sport encourages players to respect the rules and spirit of the sport, as well as the rights and dignity of other athletes and officials.
  • Integrity: Clean sport promotes the principles of integrity, honesty, and transparency in the conduct of sport at all levels.
  • Transparency: Clean sport promotes transparency and openness, so that all stakeholders, including athletes, coaches, and fans, can have confidence in the fairness and integrity of the sport.
  • Inclusion: Clean sport encourages inclusive and open competition that provides equal opportunities for all athletes, regardless of their race, gender, religion, or other characteristics.
  • Education: Clean sport emphasizes the importance of education and raising awareness about the risks and dangers of doping, and encourages athletes to make informed decisions about their health and well-being.
  • Cooperation: Clean sport promotes cooperation between anti-doping organizations, governments, sports organizations, and other stakeholders to strengthen anti-doping efforts and ensure that sport remains fair and clean.

These values and principles are embodied in the World Anti-Doping Code and embedded in the IWBF Internal Regulations governing Anti-Doping, which sets out the rules and regulations that govern IWBF’s anti-doping efforts in sport.

Adhering to these values and principles is essential for protecting the integrity of Wheelchair Basketball, ensuring fair competition, and promoting the health and well-being of athletes.


The principle of strict liability is a fundamental principle in anti-doping.

It means: a player is strictly liable for any prohibited substance that is found in their body, regardless of whether or not the athlete intended to take it or knew that it was a prohibited substance.

Here is how it works: If a prohibited substance is found in an athlete’s sample, it can be considered a violation of anti-doping rules, regardless of whether the athlete knew about it or not. The player will then have to prove that the substance entered their body without their knowledge, for example, through a contaminated supplement.

This principle is in place to protect the integrity of sport, making it more difficult for athletes to cheat by claiming they didn’t know they were taking a banned substance. Vice-versa, it helps anti-doping organizations, such as IWBF, to uphold fair play, and protect the health and well-being of athletes.

It’s important for athletes to be aware of this principle and to take the necessary precautions.

For example: always consult your doctor and other experts before taking any new supplements or medications. There is a number of tools that can help you to be cautious. Find more information and make sure to check your medication and supplements as explained under: Risk of Using Supplements


Rights & Responsibilities: Athlete & ASP

Anti-Doping is part of a player’s life and at times it appears quite complex and scary. The key for players is to know that no matter what situation they face, they have certain rights & responsibilities under the World Anti-Doping Code and IWBF Anti-Doping Regulations.

Here is an outline of the main rights for players:

  • Equality of opportunity.
  • Equitable and fair testing programs.
  • Medical treatment and protection of health rights.
  • Right to justice.
  • Right to accountability.
  • Whistleblower rights.
  • Right to get anti-doping education.
  • Right to data protection.
  • Rights to compensation.
  • Protected persons’ rights.
  • Rights during a sample collection session (see below).
  • Right to B sample analysis (if initial testing is positive).
  • Other rights and freedoms not affected.
  • Application and standing.

WADA has published the Athletes’ Anti-Doping Rights Act which provides more information on each of these rights.

On the other hand, players also have certain responsibilities within the global anti-doping system. Players must:

  • Know and abide by the applicable anti-doping rules.
  • Be available for testing at all times, upon request.
  • Abide by the principle of strict liability (take responsibility for what they ingest).
  • Inform medical professionals that as a player they have to respect the Prohibited List. And that if a treatment is required that includes a prohibited substance that a TUE request must be made.
  • Inform IWBF or your local NADO in case you have committed an Anti-Doping Rule Violation in the past 10 years.
  • Cooperate with anti-doping investigations, upon request.
  • Disclose the information of your Support Personnel, if requested by an Anti-Doping Organization.

The supporting personnel (Athlete Support Personnel – ASP) also has certain rights & responsibilities. Namely:

  • Being knowledgeable of anti-doping policies and rules which are applicable to you or the Athlete(s) you support.
  • Using your influence on Athlete values and behaviours to foster anti-doping attitudes.
  • Complying with all anti-doping policies and rules which are applicable to you or the Athlete(s) you support.
  • Cooperating with the Athlete testing program.
  • Disclosing to IWBF and their NADO whether you have committed any Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRVs) within the previous ten years.
  • Cooperating with anti-doping organisations investigating ADRVs.

Further details of these roles and responsibilities can be found in Code Art. 21.2 and 21.3.

Rights & Responsibilities: During a Doping Control

In addition to the globally applicable rights & responsibilities, it is important for a player to understand his rights whenever subject to a doping control. These can be summarised as follows:

The rights of players during a doping control.

  • Have a representative accompany them during the process.
  • Request an interpreter, if one is available.
  • Ask for Chaperone’s/Doping Control Officer’s identification.
  • Ask any questions.
  • Request a delay for a valid reason (e.g., attending a victory ceremony, receiving necessary medical attention, warming down or finishing a training session).
  • Request special assistance or modifications to the process.
  • Record any comments or concerns on the Doping Control Form.

The responsibilities of players during a doping control.

  • Report for testing immediately upon notification.
  • Show valid identification (usually a government-issued ID).
  • Remain in direct sight of the DCO or Chaperone.
  • Comply with the collection procedure.
  • Be respectful to the doping control officer and chaperone.

The consequences of doping in sport can be severe, both for the athletes involved and for the integrity of the sport. Some of the consequences of doping include:

  • Sanctions and penalties: Players who are charged with an Anti-Doping Rule Violation can face a range of sanctions. The sanctions under the IWBF Anti-Doping Rules include suspension, disqualification, and fines. These sanctions can have a significant impact on an athlete’s career and reputation.
  • Damage to reputation: Doping can damage an athlete’s reputation and make it difficult for them to continue competing. It can also damage the reputation of the sport, your team mates, the club, and the governing bodies that are responsible for enforcing anti-doping regulations.
  • Loss of sponsorship and funding: An athlete who is caught doping may lose their sponsors and funding as a result, which can have a significant financial impact.
  • Other Legal consequences: In some cases, respectively some countries, the use of doping may be against the law and can result in criminal charges.
  • Impact on sportsmanship and fair play: Doping undermines the spirit of fair play and sportsmanship, which is one of the core values of sport. It can also discourage fans from supporting the sport.
  • Health risks: Doping can also lead to serious health risks, as mentioned before. This can cause long-term health problems for athletes, including heart and liver damage, as well as acne, hair loss, and infertility.

It is important to mention that anti-doping policies and regulations are put in place to ensure that athletes compete on a level playing field, and to protect the health of athletes. It’s also the athlete’s responsibility to educate themselves about the substances and methods banned by their sport organizations, by consulting the WADA Prohibited List, and consult with their doctors or sports organizations before taking any new supplements or medications.


The World Anti-Doping Code (WADC) lists 11 types of anti-doping rule violations (ADRVs) that can lead to sanctions against players. Each one of these violations will have different levels of severity and different possible sanctions, depending on the specific circumstances of the violation and the athlete’s degree of fault. The 11 Anti-Doping Rule Violations listed under the World Anti-Doping Code and the IWBF Anti-Doping Rules are:

  1. Presence of a prohibited substance in an athlete’s sample.
  2. Use or attempted use of a prohibited substance or method.
  3. Refusing, failing, or evading a test.
  4. Whereabouts failures (multiple failures to properly file whereabouts information in order to facilitate testing).
  5. Tampering with any part of the doping control process.
  6. Possession of a prohibited substance or method.
  7. Trafficking a prohibited substance or method.
  8. Administration or attempted administration of a prohibited substance or method to an athlete.
  9. Complicity in an anti-doping rule violation, aiding, abetting, inciting, assisting, or covering up a violation.
  10. Prohibited Association (association with athlete support personnel).
  11. Obstruction of an investigation into an anti-doping rule violation.

Please refer to Article 2, Section K of the IWBF Official Handbook for more details on the respective violations.

Sanctions & Anti-Doping Violations

IWBF has issued the following sanctions as a result of Anti-Doping Rule Violations:

PlayerNationalitySubstanceDecisionExpiration of suspensionAnti-Doping Rule Violation CommittedDisposition of the Case
Amadou DIALLO DIOUFSpanishSibutramine1 year suspension
14 July 2023
Presence of a Prohibited Substance or its Metabolites or Markers in an Athlete’s Sample - Article 2.1 IWBF ADRFinal decision, no appeal.

The World Anti-Doping Agency publishes the Prohibited List of Substances and Methods. It is updated annually, and all athletes are responsible for knowing and adhering to the rules and regulations set forth in the list.

The Prohibited List is divided into two main categories:

  • banned substances, which includes performance-enhancing drugs such as anabolic steroids and stimulants, and
  • banned methods, which includes methods used to enhance performance such as blood doping and gene doping.

The list is designed to protect the health of athletes and the integrity of sports by deterring the use of performance-enhancing substances and methods. The substances and methods on the Prohibited List are deemed to comply with all or several of these criteria: have the potential to harm an athlete’s health or give them an unfair advantage over their competitors or damage the image of the sport.

WADA works with sports organizations and national anti-doping agencies around the world to enforce the rules and regulations set forth in the Prohibited List. Athletes who test positive for a banned substance or use a banned method can face suspension or other penalties, depending on the sport and the specific circumstances of the case.

It’s important to note that some substances and methods are prohibited only in-competition (for example: cannabis/ THC) while some are prohibited both in and out-of-competition.

Of course, should a player require medication to regain his state of health, they are allowed to use those, if they apply for a therapeutic use exemptions (TUEs). Please refer to Therapeutic Use Exception for more information.

Check your medication

Whenever a player is in need to use a medication it should be checked whether the medication contains a banned substance – this is equally applicable for over-the-counter and prescription medication.

There are several ways for you to check your medication – here is an overview that may be useful:

  1. Consult your doctor or medical support staff and ask them to support you in the review.
  2. Consult the Prohibited List directly. The Prohibited List is available on the WADA website, and it includes a detailed list of all prohibited substances and methods, as well as information on the specific criteria used to determine whether a substance or method is banned. To consult the prohibited list you need to have a detailed list of all ingredients that compose the medication in question.
  3. Consult Global DRO (Drug Reference Online). Global DRO is a database of medication that contains information on whether a particular medication is banned under the WADA Prohibited List. Athletes can search for a medication by name or active ingredient to find out if it is prohibited.
  4. Consult your National Anti-Doping Organization for more information about a specific medication.

The consumption of supplements as a player subject to anti-doping rules holds certain risks. This section provides an overview of these risks.

Supplements may contain prohibited substances that are not listed on the label. Some supplements may contain banned substances that are not listed on the label, either as an intentional ingredient or as an unintended contamination.

Over the past, it was detected that certain supplements contained banned substances, such as steroids, stimulants, and certain masking agents. Some products have even been found to contain multiple banned substances.

These supplements can be harmful to the health of the athlete and can lead to a positive doping test, which can result in sanctions, penalties, and can damage the athlete’s reputation.

Please note that dietary supplements are most commonly not regulated by public health authorities in the same way as medication are, and quality can vary widely between different manufacturers and even batches, that’s why some supplements may contain lower or higher doses of an ingredient than what is listed on the label or even contain substances not listed on the label.

To minimize the risk, it is recommended that athletes should be very careful using supplements altogether or, at least, take care when using them.

Check your supplements

If you decide to use supplements, despite the risks, you can check your supplements to ensure they do not contain any banned substances by using a number of online tools.

Here are a few examples:

  • Informed-Sport/Informed-Choice: These are third-party certification programs that indicate that a supplement has been tested for banned substances and is free from contamination. Supplements that carry the Informed-Sport or Informed-Choice logo have been tested by an accredited laboratory, and they’re useful as they provide a level of confidence to the athletes that the supplements they’re using are clean.
    You can search for supplements here: https://sport.wetestyoutrust.com/

  • NSF Certified for Sport: Similar to the previous, it’s a certification program that verifies that supplements are free from banned substances and are produced in facilities that are compliant with good manufacturing practices. It also provides the athletes with a means of identifying supplements that have been tested for banned substances.

  • Global DRO (Drug Reference Online): This is an online database that provides athletes and support personnel with information about prohibited substances and methods, as well as therapeutic use exemptions. It also helps in checking for products that are not banned but contain prohibited substances which should be avoided as well. Note: This tool is more designed for medication, rather than supplements.

These are just a few examples of the online tools available to athletes to help them check their supplements for banned substances. It’s important to note that supplements are not strictly regulated, so even if a supplement has been certified, there is no guarantee that it will not contain banned substances.

The most important thing is to be vigilant and read the label of the product, check whether the product is certified by one of the mentioned programs, and consult with your healthcare professionals before taking any supplements. Even if the supplements are not banned, they still might interact with any medication you are taking or affect your health in other ways.



You have the right to the best medical treatment.

In certain cases, you may be required to take a prohibited substance or use a prohibited method in order to treat an illness or condition.

In such cases, you need to apply for a Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE), which, if granted, gives you the authorisation to take the required medication containing a banned substance or use the required banned method.

Useful tips during control:

  • Remember to declare any approved medication on your Doping Control Form;
  • Specify that a TUE has been granted;
  • Carry with you a copy of the TUE and, if possible, show it to the doping control officer.

Click here for detailed information.


  • For all IWBF competitions (International Club competition or official National Team Events), the TUE request must be addressed to IWBF, while for national championships it must be made to the National Organisation for Wheelchair Basketball (NOWB) or to the country’s National Anti-Doping Agency (NADO).
  • Download the TUE application form here.
  • Have your doctor/physician fill-in the TUE application form.
  • Send it back to IWBF (by e-mail to anti-doping@iwbf.org) or your National Wheelchair Basketball Federation (see above) at least 30 days prior to the beginning of the competition/championship (exceptional circumstances may allow for a shorter deadline).
  • Once a TUE is requested, the FIBA TUE Committee*, a panel of experts, reviews your request. A TUE will be granted if the following criteria are met:
    • Your health will be significantly impaired if you do not take the substance.
    • The substance does not enhance your performance beyond what brings you back to normal health.
    • There are no alternative treatments available.
  • IWBF has 30 days to advise if you can take the requested medication or not. In the case of a denied request, you will be informed of the reasons. You have the right to appeal the decision.


IWBF does not automatically recognise national TUEs until a player requests the recognition of his or her national TUE.

Upon receipt of the request for recognition (submission of the valid national TUE receipt), the FIBA TUE Committee* will ordinarily recognise the TUE, if it meets the criteria defined in the WADA International Standard for TUEs (https://www.wada-ama.org/en/resources/therapeutic-use-exemption-tue/international-standard-for-therapeutic-use-exemptions-istue).

Every team (national team or club) that registers for an IWBF competition shall declare every player with a valid national TUE at the moment of the registration. The team shall provide a copy of the valid national TUE in this process.

As mentioned above, the IWBF TUEC will review the valid national TUE upon its receipt and reserves the right to request additional information and/or documentation, if deemed necessary to make a decision on the recognition. A player in possession of a valid national TUE may not take a prohibited substance or use a prohibited method during an IWBF Competition, or during other times in which he or she is subject to IWBF’s testing authority, unless and until the IWBF TUEC has granted the request for recognition.

Note: above constitutes a practical summary and not legal or medical advice. Please refer to the complete procedures governing the application and granting of a TUE as set out in the International Standard for TUEs (https://www.wada-ama.org/en/resources/therapeutic-use-exemption-tue/international-standard-for-therapeutic-use-exemptions-istue) published by WADA. You may also contact IWBF (anti-doping@iwbf.org), your National Federation or NADO for more information.

*As part of the close cooperation between FIBA and IWBF it is agreed that the FIBA TUE Committee also reviews wheelchair basketball players’ applications on behalf of IWBF.



Doping controls can be performed as ‘in-competition tests’ or ‘out-of-competition tests’:

  • In-competition testing period is defined as follows: The period commencing at 11:59 p.m. on the day before a competition in which the player is scheduled to participate through the end of such competition and the sample collection process related to such competition.

  • Out-of-competition testing refers to all tests that are not defined as in-competition. Any basketball player, affiliated through its National Federation to FIBA, can be requested to provide a urine and/or blood sample at any time and in any location.

IWBF may collect urine and/ or blood samples from you in accordance with WADA’s International Standard for Testing and Investigation.


The doping control process in 10 steps

From the time of notification to the end of the doping control process, you will be accompanied at all times.

  1. Your urine and/or blood can be collected anytime and anywhere for doping control purposes.
  2. You will be notified by a doping control officer or chaperone about your selection for doping control. You will be asked to sign a form confirming that you understand your rights and responsibilities.
  3. You will be requested to immediately report to the doping control.
  4. You will choose a collection vessel from the selection provided.
  5. Provide sample
    • A minimum amount of 90mL of urine will need to be provided.
    • You will disrobe from knees to navel and from your hands to elbow to provide an unobstructed view of the passing of the sample.
    • A Doping Control Officer (DCO) or chaperone of the same gender will observe the urine leaving your body.
  6. Choose a sample collection kit from the selection provided. Split the sample into the A and B bottles. Pour urine up to the line in the B bottle first. Next, fill the A bottle and leave a small portion in the collection vessel.
  7. Seal the A and B bottles.
  8. The DCO will measure the specific gravity of the sample to ensure it is not too diluted to analyse. If it is too dilute, you may be required to provide additional samples.
  9. You will complete the Doping Control Form, by:
    • Providing personal information
    • Noting any substances you may be taking: prescription medication, over-the-counter medication and supplements noting concerns or comments, if you have any, about the doping control
    • Declaring that you have a valid Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) should you be taking a medication which is prohibited
    • Confirming the information, recorded numbers and sample code are correct
    • Signing and receiving your copy of the doping control form
  10. Samples will be sent to a WADA-accredited laboratory in strict confidentiality and will be tracked to ensure their security. Your A sample will be analysed, and your B sample will be securely stored for further testing if required. The laboratory will send the results to the responsible National Anti-Doping Organisation (NADO) and WADA.

In order to combat doping in wheelchair basketball efficiently, IWBF may establish certain testing pools. Most notably, IWBF may create a Registered Testing Pool (RTP) that includes individual players or a Testing Pool (TP) that includes entire teams.

As for the Registered Testing Pool:

IWBF currently does not have any players within the Registered Testing Pool. Players who have been added to the RTP will be informed individually and be briefed about their rights & responsibilities as RTP athletes. The criteria for which a player may be included to the RTP include (inter alia):

  • Doping history of a specific player: A player with a history of doping or who has served a previous doping ban, are also likely to be included in an RTP as they may be considered at higher risk of doping.
  • Performance criteria: specific sporting results or performances may be considered in order to decide whether a player shall be added to the RTP.
  • Country doping risk: an additional criteria may be whether the player is from a country with a recent, tangible record of doping history.

As for the Testing Pool:

IWBF may from time to time include teams to a IWBF Testing Pool. Teams are informed of their inclusion and briefed of their responsibilities and the process to submit team whereabouts information.

The criteria for inclusion are similar to the ones listed above for players.


Help us protect the Clean Game and the integrity of wheelchair basketball. Every time someone steps forward with information on doping, we move closer to a clean and fair environment for all.

Coming forward with sensitive information is a big decision – one that you would not enter into lightly. We applaud the courage and conviction required to raise concerns about cheating. Please feel assured that WIBF and WADA take this very seriously.

The ‘Speak UP!’ website is a secure way for you to report activity that you think goes against anti-doping rules.

Whether you decide to open a secure mailbox, or provide us with your contact information, everything you report via the platform is strictly confidential.

By clicking the ‘Speak UP’ logo you may access the secure reporting platform.